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Art Graesser
Books (authored, edited)

Graesser, A.C., Gernsbacher, M.A., & Goldman, S. (2003)(Eds.). Handbook of discourse processes. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. DOC Introduction

Refereed Journal Publications (does not include book chapters)

Penumatsa, P., Ventura, M., Graesser, A.C., Franceschetti, D.R., Louwerse, M., Hu, X., Cai, Z., & the Tutoring Research Group (2004).  The right threshold value: What is the right threshold of cosine measure when using latent semantic analysis for evaluating student answers?  International Journal of Artificial Intelligence Tools, 12, 257-279.

Song, K., Hu,X., Olney, A., Graesser, A.C., & TRG (2004).   A framework of synthesizing tutoring conversation capability with web based distance education courseware.  Computers & Education, 42, 375-388.

Hu, X., & Graesser, A.C. (2004).  Human Use Regulatory Affairs Advisor (HURAA):  Learning about research ethics with intelligent learning modules.   Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers.

Graesser, A.C., Hu, X., Person, P., Jackson, T., and Toth, J (2004). Modules and information retrieval facilities of the Human Use Regulatory Affairs Advisor (HURAA).  International Journal on eLearning. PDF Version

Graesser, A.C., McNamara, D.S., Louwerse, M.M., & Cai, Z. (2004).  Coh-Metrix: Analysis of text on cohesion and language.  Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 36, 193-202. PDF Version

Graesser, A.C., Lu, S., Jackson, G.T., Mitchell, H., Ventura, M., Olney, A., & Louwerse, M.M. (2004). AutoTutor: A tutor with dialogue in natural language.  Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 36, 180-193. PDF Version

Craig, S.D., Graesser, A.C., Sullins, J., & Gholson, B. (2004). Affect and learning: An exploratory look into the role of affect in learning with AutoTutor. Journal of Educational Media, 29, 241-250. PDF Version

Driscoll, D.M., Craig, S.D., Gholson, B., Ventura, M.,Hu, X., & Graesser, A.C. (2003).  Vicarious learning: Effects of overhearing dialog and monolog-like discourse in a virtual tutoring session.  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29, 431-450. 

Graesser, A.C., & Olde, B.A. (2003).  How does one know whether a person understands a device?  The quality of the questions the person asks when the device breaks down.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 524-536. DOC Version

Book Chapters

DiPaolo, R.E., Graesser, A.C., White, H.A., & Hacker, D.J. (2004).  Hints in human and computer tutoring.  In M. Rabinowitz (Ed.), The design of instruction and evaluation (pp. 155-182). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Graesser, A.C., Gernsbacher, M.A., & Goldman, S.R. (2003). Introduction to the Handbook of Discourse Processes. In A.C. Graesser, M.A. Gernsbacher, and S.R. Goldman (Eds.), Handbook of discourse processes. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. DOC Version

Graesser,A.C., McNamara,D.S.,& Louwerse,M.M (2003). What do readers need to learn in order to process coherence relations in narrative and expository text. In A.P. Sweet and C.E. Snow (Eds.), Rethinking reading comprehension (pp. 82-98). New York: Guilford Publications.

Refereed conference publications and abstracts

Cai, Z., McNamara, D. S., Louwerse, M., Hu, X., Rowe, M. & Graesser, A. C. (2004). NLS: A Non-Latent Similarity Algorithm. In K. D. Forbus, D. Gentner, & T. Regier (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. PDF Version

Lu, S., & Graesser, A. C. (2004). What is universal in perceiving, remembering, and describing event temporal relations? In K. D. Forbus, D. Gentner, & T. Regier (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum

Graesser, A.C., & Petschonek, S. (2004).  Automated systems that analyze text and discourse: QUAID, Coh-Metrix, and AutoTutor.  In W. R. Lenderking (Ed.) Proceedings of the International Society of Quality of Life.  McLean, VA: Quality of Life Society.    

Person, N.K., Hancock, J.T., Burke, A.C., & Graesser, A.C. (2004).  A linguistic model that infers user states and traits.  ITS 2004 Workshop Proceedings on Social and Emotional Intelligence in Learning Environments.  Maceio, Brazil.  

Jackson, G.T., Person, N.K., and Graesser, A.C. (2004) Adaptive Tutorial Dialogue in AutoTutor. Proceedings of the workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems at the 7th International conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil, 9-13.

Jackson, G.T., Ventura, M.J., Chewle, P., Graesser, A.C., and the Tutoring Research Group (2004). The Impact of Why/AutoTutor on Learning and Retention of Conceptual Physics. In J.C. Lester, R.M. Vicari, & F. Paraguacu (Eds.), Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2004 (pp. 501-510).  Berlin, Germany: Springer.

 Louwerse, M.M., McCarthy, P.M., McNamara, D.S., Graesser, A.C. (2004). Variation in language and cohesion across written and spoken registers. In K.D. Forbus, D. Gentner, T. Regier (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.  Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. PDF Version

Ventura, M.J., Hu, X., Graesser, A. C., Louwerse, M.M., & Olney, A. (2004). The context dependent sentence abstraction model.  In K. D. Forbus, D. Gentner, & T. Regier (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ventura, M.J., Franchescetti, D.R., Pennumatsa, P., Graesser, A.C., Jackson, G.T., Hu, X., Cai, Z., and the Tutoring Research Group (2004). Combining Computational Models of Short Essay Grading for Conceptual Physics Problems.  In J.C. Lester, R.M. Vicari, & F. Paraguacu (Eds.), Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2004 (pp. 423-431).  Berlin, Germany: Springer. 

Craig, S.D., & Graesser, A. (2003). Why am I confused: An exploratory look into the role of affect in learning. In A. M�ndez-Vilas and J.A. Mesa Gonz�lez (Eds.), Advances in Technology-based Education: Towards a Knowledge-based Society (vol 3, pp. 1903-1906).  Badajoz, Spain: Junta de Extremadura. PDF Version

Franceschetti, D., Adcock, A., & Graesser, A.A. (2003). Analysis of strategies in expert tutoring dialog for use in intelligent tutoring system development. In R. Alterman and D. Hirsh (Eds.), Proceedings of the 25rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1). Boston, MA: Cognitive Science Society.

Graesser, A.C. (2003).  AutoTutor and other conversational agents that scaffold learning.  In F. Schmalhofer, R.M. Young, and G. Katz (Eds.), Proceedings of the European Cognitive Science Society 2003 (p. 11).  Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Graesser, A.C., Jackson, G.T., Mathews, E.C., Mitchell, H.H., Olney, A.,Ventura, M., Chipman, P., Franceschetti, D., Hu, X., Louwerse, M.M., Person, N.K., & TRG (2003). Why/AutoTutor: A test of learning gains from a physics tutor with natural language dialog. In R. Alterman and D. Hirsh (Eds.), Proceedings of the 25rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1-5). Boston, MA: Cognitive Science Society. PDF Version

Graesser, A.C., Moreno, K., Marineau, J., Adcock, A., Olney, A., & Person, N. (2003). AutoTutor improves deep learning of computer literacy: Is it the dialog or the talking head? In U. Hoppe, F. Verdejo, and J. Kay (Eds.), Proceedings of Artificial Intelligence in Education. (pp, 47-.54). Amsterdam: IOS Press. (finalist for outstanding paper award). DOC Version

Graesser, A.C., Ventura, M., Jackson, G.T., Mueller, J., Hu, X., & Person, N. (2003). The impact of conversational navigational guides on the learning, use, and perceptions of users of a web site. Proceedings of the AAAI Spring Symposium 2003 on Agent-mediated Knowledge Management (pp. 9-14). Palo Alto, CA: AAAI Press.

Hu, X., Cai, Z. Louwerse, M., Olney, A., Penumatsa, P., Graesser, A.C., & TRG (2003). Proceedings of the 2003 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (pp. xx-xx).

Hu, X., Cai, Z., Franceschetti, D., Penumatsa,P., Graesser, A.C.,Louwerse, M.M., McNamara, D.S., & TRG (2003). LSA: The first dimension and dimensional weighting. In R. Alterman and D. Hirsh (Eds.), Proceedings of the 25rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1-6). Boston, MA: Cognitive Science Society.

Jackson, G.T., Mathews, E.C., Lin, K., Olney, A., Graesser, A.C. (2003). Modeling student performance to enhance the pedagogy of AutoTutor. In the Proceedings of the 2003 conference on User Modeling. PDF Version

Louwerse, M.M., Graesser, A.C. and the Tutoring Research Group (2003). Language use in intelligent tutoring systems: mixed-initiative dialog in AutoTutor. In A.K. Noor (Ed.), Proceedings of workshop on Advanced learning technologies and learning networks and their impact on future aerospace workforce (pp. 251-276). Hanover, MD: NASA Center for Aerospace Information (NASA/CP-2003-212437).

Mathews, E.C., Jackson, G.T., Olney, A., Chipman, P., & Graesser, A.C. (2003). Achieving domain independence in AutoTutor. In N.Callaos, M. Margenstern, J. Zhang, O. Castillo, E. Doberkat (Eds.), The Seventh World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics, and Informatics Proceedings: Computer Science and Engineering I, Vol. 5 (pp.172-176). Orlando, FL: IEEE. PDF Version

Mathews, E., Jackson, G.T., Person, N.K., Graesser, A.C., & TRG (2003). Discourse patterns in Why/AutoTutor. In the Proceedings of the 2003 AAAI Spring Symposium Series on Natural Language Generation in Spoken and Written Dialog (pp.97-103). Palo Alto, CA: AAAI Press. PDF Version

Olney , A., Louwerse, M., Mathews, E., Marineau, J., Hite-Mitchell, H., & Graesser, A. (2003). Utterance Classification in AutoTutor. In J. Burstein & C. Leacock (Eds.), Building Educational Applications using Natural Language Processing: Proceedings of the Human Language Technology - North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics Conference 2003 Workshop, May 31, ( pp. 1-8). Philadelphia: Association for Computational Linguistics. PDF Version

Penumatsa, P., Ventura, M., Olde, B.A., Franceschetti, D.R., Graesser,A.C., & TRG (2003). The right threshold value: What is the right threshold of cosine measure when using latent semantic analysis for evaluating student answers? In the Proceedings of the 2003 Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Conference. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press.

Person, N., & Graesser, A.C. (2003). Fourteen facts about human tutoring: Food for thought for ITS developers. In V. Aleven, U. Hoppe, J. Kay, R. Mizoguchi, H. Pain, F. Verdejo, and K. Yacef (Eds.), AIED2003 Supplemental Proceedings (pp. 335-344). Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney School of Information Technologies.

Susarla, S., Adcock, A., Van Eck, R., Moreno, K., & Graesser, A.C. (2003). Development and evaluation of a lesson authoring tool for AutoTutor. In V. Aleven, U. Hoppe, J. Kay, R. Mizoguchi, H. Pain, F. Verdejo, and K. Yacef (Eds.), AIED2003 Supplemental Proceedings (pp. 378-387). Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney School of Information Technologies. PDF Version

Nonreferred publications

Graesser, A.C., & Hu, X.  (2003).  Question generation and answering in distance learning environments.  Army Research Institute Technical Report. Alexandria, VA: US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

Ryder, J.M., Graesser, A.C., Le Mentec, J.-C., Louwerse, M.M., Karnavat, A., Popp, E.A., & Hu, X. (2003).  A Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring System for Practicing Battle Command Reasoning.  (CHI Systems Technical Report  01020.030929).  Fort Washington, PA:  CHI Systems, Inc.

Graesser, A.C., Louwerse, M.M., Burger, J., Carroll, J. et al. (2003). Question generation and answering systems: R&D for technology-enabled learning systems. Research roadmap for Federation of American Sciences. PDF Version

Invited Presentations


Conferences

Graesser, A.C. (September, 2003).  AutoTutor and other conversational agents that scaffold learning.  Keynote address at the 2003 European Cognitive Science Society.  Osnabruck, Germany. 

Graesser, A.C. (November, 2003).  Evolution of computer learning environments: From computer-assisted instruction to intelligent tutoring systems with natural language dialog.  Keynote address at the 33nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology.  Vancouver, Canada. 

Graesser, A.C., & Franklin, S. (November, 2003). Avatars, agents, robots, and learning technologies.  Invited presentation in the grande opening of the FedEx Institute of Technology. Memphis, TN. 

Other (Universities/Industry)

Graesser, A.C. (2003, March).  AutoTutor: Learning by collaborative question answering and mixed-initiative dialog.  Colloquium at the University of Colorado.  

Graesser, A.C. (2003, March).  AutoTutor: Learning by collaborative question answering and mixed-initiative dialog.  Colloquium at the University of Texas at Dallas.    

Louwerse, M., & Graesser, A.C. (2003, April). Language use in intelligent tutoring systems: Mixed-initiative dialog in AutoTutor.  NASA Meeting, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia.

Conferences (refereed)

Cai, Z., McNamara, D. S., Louwerse, M., Hu, X., Rowe, M. & Graesser, A. C. (August, 2004). NLS: a non-latent similarity algorithm. Paper presented at the 26rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Washington, DC.  

Graesser, A.C., Klesges, R., DeBon, M.,. & Johnson, K. (November, 2004).  Older adults stop smoking more often when interventions incorporate principles of cognitive and discourse psychology.  Paper presented at the 45th Meetings of the Psychonomic Society.  Minneapolis, MN.  

Graesser, A.C., & Petschonek, S. (June, 2004).  Automated systems that analyze text and discourse: QUAID, Coh-Metrix, and AutoTutor.  Invited symposium presentation at the International Society of Quality of Life.  Boston, MA.    

Hu, X., Cai, Z., Olney, A., Shen, J., & Graesser, A.C. (November, 2004).  Measuring similarity between semantic spaces.  Paper presented at the 34th Annual Meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology.  Minneapolis, MN.  

Jackson, G.T., Person, N.K., and Graesser, A.C. (September, 2004) Adaptive tutorial dialogue in AutoTutor. Paper presented at the 7th International conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil.

Jackson, G.T., Ventura, M.J., Chewle, P., Graesser, A.C., and the Tutoring Research Group (September, 2004). The impact of Why/AutoTutor on learning and retention of conceptual physics. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2004.  Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil.

Louwerse, M.M., McCarthy, P.M., McNamara, D.S., Graesser, A.C. (August, 2004). Variation in language and cohesion across written and spoken registers. Paper presented at the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.  Washington, DC.  

Lu, S., & Graesser, A. C. (August, 2004). What is universal in perceiving, remembering, and describing Paper presented at the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.  Washington, DC.  

Lu, S., Wallace, J., Graesser, A.C., & Gholson, B. (November, 2004).  An eye tracking study of describing event temporal relations.  Poster presented at the 45th Meetings of the Psychonomic Society.  Minneapolis, MN.  

Hu, X., Cai, Z., Olney, A., Shen, J., & Graesser, A.C. (November, 2004).  Measuring similarity between semantic spaces.  Paper presented at the 34th Annual Meeting of the Scociety for Computers in Psychology.  Minneapolis, MN.  

Mitchell, H., Petschonek, S.L., Wallace, J., Louwerse, M.M., & Graesser, A.C. (November, 2004).  Impact of orienting questions on researching Navy websites.  Paper presented at the 34th Annual Meeting of the Scociety for Computers in Psychology.  Minneapolis, MN.  

Person, N.K., Hancock, J.T., Burke, A.C., & Graesser, A.C. (September, 2004).  A linguistic model that infers user states and traits.  Paper presented at the ITS 2004 Workshop Proceedings on Social and Emotional Intelligence in Learning Environments.  Maceio, Brazil.  

Ventura, M.J., Hu, X., Graesser, A. C., Louwerse, M.M., & Olney, A. (August, 2004). The context dependent sentence abstraction model.  Paper presented at the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.  Washington, DC.

Ventura, M.J.,  Franchescetti, D.R.,  Pennumatsa, P.,  Graesser, A.C., Jackson, G.T., Hu, X., Cai, Z., and the Tutoring Research Group (September, 2004). Combining computational models of short essay grading for conceptual physics problems.  Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2004.  Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil.

Mathews, E., Person, N.K., Jackson, G.T., Graesser, A.C., & TRG (March, 2003).  Discourse patterns in Why/AutoTutor.  Paper presented at the meetings of the AAAI Spring Symposium Series on Natural Language Generation in Spoken and Written Dialog.  Stanford University, CA.   

Graesser, A.C., Ventura, M., Jackson, G.T., Mueller, J., Hu, X., & Person, N. (April, 2003).  The impact of conversational navigational guides on the learning, use, and perceptions of users of a web site.  Paper presented at the AAI Spring Symposium 2003 on Agent-mediated Knowledge Management.  Palo Alto, CA.   

Graesser, A.C., & Lu, S. (April, 2003).  Eye tracking while learning from an intelligent tutoring systems with an animated conversational agent.  Poster presented at the meetings of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago, IL. 

Graesser, A.C. (April, 2003).   Reach for the stars: Basic research in reading and literacy.  Invited symposium at the meetings of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago, IL. 

Penumatsa, P., Ventura, M., Olde, B.A., Franceschetti, D.R., Graesser,A.C., & TRG (April, 2003).  The right threshold value: What is the right threshold of cosine measure when using latent semantic analysis for evaluating student answers?  Paper presented at the Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Conference.  St. Augustine, FL.    

Olney , A., Louwerse, M., Mathews, E., Marineau, J., Hite-Mitchell, H., & Graesser, A. (May, 2003). Utterance Classification in AutoTutor. Paper presented at the conference on Building Educational Applications using Natural Language Processing: Proceedings of the Human Language Technology - North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics Conference 2003 Workshop ( pp. 1-8). Philadelphia, PA. 

Mitchell, H., & Graesser, A.C. (July, 2003).  Investigating conceptually driven processing in humor: The effects of context on jokes.  Paper presented at the 15th International Society for Humor Studies.  Northern Illinois University.  

Jackson, G.T., Mathews, E.C., Lin, K., Olney, A., Graesser, A.C. (June, 2003).   Modeling student performance to enhance the pedagogy of AutoTutor.  Paper presented at the 2003 Conference on User Modeling. Johnstown, PA. 

Graesser, A.C., Jackson, G.T., Mathews, E.C., Mitchell, H.H., Olney, A.,Ventura, M., Chipman, P., Franceschetti, D., Hu, X., Louwerse, M.M., Person, N.K., & TRG (July, 2003).  Why/AutoTutor: A test of learning gains from a physics tutor with natural language dialog.  Paper presented at the 25rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.  Boston, MA.   

Graesser, A.C., Moreno, K., Marineau, J., Adcock, A., Olney, A., & Person, N. (July, 2003).  AutoTutor improves deep learning of computer literacy: Is it the dialog or the talking head?  Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education conference.  Sydney, Australia.    (finalist for outstanding paper award).    

Mathews, E.C., Jackson, G.T., Olney, A., Chipman, P., & Graesser, A.C. (July, 2003).  Achieving domain independence in AutoTutor.  Paper presented at the Seventh World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics, and Informatics. Orlando, FL.   

Mathews, E.C., Jackson, G.T., Olney, A., Chipman, P., & Graesser, A.C. (July, 2003).  Achieving domain independence in AutoTutor.  Paper presented at the Seventh World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics, and Informatics Proceedings: Computer Science and Engineering.  Orlando, FL.    

Person, N., & Graesser, A.C. (July, 2003).  Fourteen facts about human tutoring: Food for thought for ITS developers.   Paper presented at the AIED2003 Workshop on Tutorial Dialog in the Classroom.  Sydney, Australia.   

Susarla, S., Adcock, A., Van Eck, R., Moreno, K., & Graesser, A.C. (July, 2003).  Development and evaluation of a lesson authoring tool for AutoTutor.  Paper presented at the AIED2003 Workshop on Tutorial Dialog in the Classroom.  Sydney, Australia. 

Hu, X., Cai, Z., Franceschetti, D., Penumatsa,P., Graesser, A.C.,Louwerse, M.M., McNamara, D.S., & TRG (August, 2003).  LSA: The first dimension and dimensional weighting. Presentation at the the 25rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Boston, MA. 

Hu, X., Cai, Z. Louwerse, M., Olney, A., Penumatsa, P., Graesser, A.C., & TRG (2003).  Paper presented at the 2003 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence.  Mexico. 

Craig, S.D., & Graesser, A. (December, 2003).  Why am I confused: An exploratory look into the role of affect in learning.  Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Multimedia and Information & Communication Technologies in Education.  Badajoz, Spain. 

Graesser, A. C., Lu, S. (November, 2003).  Texts, pictures, labels, versus arrows in the comprehension of illustrated texts.  Paper presented at5 the 44th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society. Vancouver, Canada.  

Graesser, A.C., McNamara, D.S., Louwerse, M.M., & Cai, Z. (November, 2003).  Coh-Metrix: Analysis of text on cohesion and language.  Symposium presentation at the 33nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology.  Vancouver, Canada. 

Hu, X., & Graesser, A.C. (November, 2003).  Human Use Regulatory Affairs Advisor (HURAA): Learning about research ethics with intelligent learning modules.  Symposium presentation at the 33nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology.  Vancouver, Canada. DOC Version

Lu, S., & Graesser, A.C. (November, 2003).  AutoTutor: Tutorialdialog in natural language with an animated conversational agent.  Symposium presentation at the 33nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology.  Vancouver, Canada. 

Lu, S., Graesser, A. C., & Wolff, P. (November, 2003).  Perceptions and conceptions of time.  Paper presented at5 the 44th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society. Vancouver, Canada.  

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