DISCLAIMER: We are currently working on the Tent City Website. The information presented on this site is incomplete at this time. The website is expected to be finished in late August 2014. If you have any questions, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Welcome to the Tent City website
Tent City covers the series of civil rights events that took place in Fayette County,
Tennessee, from 1959 into the early 1970s, which resulted in many black residents
being evicted from the sharecropper housing that had been homes to some families for
generations. Ultimately, up to 700 people had to move into one of two Tent Cities
erected on donated land, some living there for up to 4 years. In addition, black residents
who registered to vote were blocked from goods and services necessary to survive day
to day: milk, eggs, fuel, and even medical care.
Although these events took place over 50 years ago, we still face the same struggles
for human rights in the U.S. and around the globe. Tent cities seem to pop up whenever
less powerful populations are displaced by those with more economic, political, and
social means—either to grab the property of the displaced, or as a result of war migration,
racial or ethnic massacres, or other civic and political upheaval—including those
following natural disasters or economic downturn.
Why is Tent City important as a Civil Rights Era Event?
The Tent City movement in Fayette County is significant for a number of reasons: First,
it was a truly grassroots movement—initiated, organized, and maintained by black residents in the local community. Outside
help from regional sympathizers, college activists, and the federal government certainly
came in and helped the Fayette County participants to keep the movement going, but
the leaders and long-term participants were locals.
Second, unlike many more widely known civil rights events, Tent City was a rural movement whose participants made their living from the land—most of the African American population
worked for white landowners as sharecroppers. This meant the civil rights movement in Fayette County was primarily an effort of
This can be better appreciated if we note that the middle-class, more educated blacks—who
had more resources to start a movement—were few and mostly found in urban areas. At
the time, most blacks in the rural South were poor and under-educated and, therefore,
many of the movements during the Civil Rights Era were initiated by white sympathizers
who came to the South to recruit and organize black activists.
Finally, Fayette County—as well as adjacent Haywood County—were politically promising because they were the only two of 96 Tennessee counties in which blacks outnumbered
whites. This made change at a significant scale possible if black citizens could vote.
Also, being located in the southwestern part of the state and adjacent to the Mississippi state line, Fayette County was in a strategic position for extending efforts into Mississippi,
which had garnered much of the national attention concerning civil rights violations
Map of Tennessee highlighting Fayette (blue) and Haywood (green) counties.
Image adapted from work by JusBer 88 on Wikimedia. The use of this image does not
indicate that the artist, publisher, or any other affiliate endorses this website,
The Benjamin L. Hooks Center for Social Change, or The University of Memphis.
Though we cannot begin to tell (or even find) every individual's story from this era,
we want to include a variety of perspectives here; this site provides a venue in which
Fayette County residents and other participants in the movement can describe their
experiences of these events. But we are also interested in the relationship between
history and the present. How do experiences from the 1960s affect people's feelings,
hopes, or concerns about Fayette County today? What do these stories mean to young
people who are just learning about the county's past?
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In another sense, though, we believe the stories and discussions gathered here may
have meaning far beyond Fayette County. The struggle for justice is not unique to
this region, after all, and here, as elsewhere, it highlighted deep divisions within
the community while forcing everyone who lived in the area to think about what change
might mean for their society and for themselves as individuals. We want to understand
how people live and work in a shared locale during periods of social upheaval, or
how they negotiate contemporary conflict while planning for a still uncertain future.
Why is Tent City important to know about now and into the future?
Today, Fayette County faces new kinds of change, including the impact of growth from
nearby Memphis. What does Fayette County's history mean to newer residents—whether
those who have moved recently or young people born locally—and how might broader recognition
of that past shape the county today? We think the stories of Fayette County offer
a special opportunity to understand how communities can overcome difficult pasts and
remind us that these human rights issues continue, and remain urgent in national and
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Sponsored by the Benjamin L. Hooks Institute for Social Change, the Department of English, and the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Memphis, this website is being developed by researchers, faculty, and students at the University
of Memphis and the University of Tennessee, Martin.