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Research Programs

Faculty and doctoral students in the Department of Management at the University of Memphis are actively engaged in rigorous and relevant scientific research. Our areas of research expertise include human resource management, organizational behavior, leadership, strategic management, entrepreneurship, international management, and organizational research methods. Below is an overview of our research programs along with examples of representative research articles that we have published in leading scholarly journals.

Human Resource Management & Organizational Behavior

Dr. Kristen Jones studies HR management topics such as subtle and overt discrimination, pregnancy discrimination, stigmas, sexism, and diversity training.  Examples of her research publications:

  • Arena, D.F., Jones, K.P., Sabat, I.E., & King, E.B. (in press). The intrapersonal experience of pregnancy at work: An exploratory study. Journal of Business and Psychology.
  • Jones, K.P., Clair, J., King, E.B., Humberd, B., & Arena, D.F. (in press). How help during pregnancy can undermine self-efficacy and increase postpartum intentions to quit. Personnel Psychology.
  • Sabat, I.E., Lindsey, A.P., Winslow, C., King, E.B., Membere, A., Jones, K.P., & Smith, N. (in press). Stigma expression outcomes and boundary conditions: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology.
  • Arena, D.F., & Jones, K.P. (in press). To "B" or not to "B": Assessing the disclosure dilemma of bisexual individuals at work. Journal of Vocational Behavior.
  • Mohr, J., Markell, H., King, E.B., Jones, K.P., Peddie, C.I., & Kendra, M. (2019). Affective antecedents and consequences of revealing and concealing a lesbian, gay, or bisexual identity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 104, 1266-1282.
  • Jones, K.P., Sabat, I., King, E.B., Ahmad, A.A., McCausland, T.C., & Chen, T.R. (2017). Isms and schisms: A meta-analysis of the prejudice-discrimination relationship across racism, sexism, and ageism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38, 1076-1110.
  • Jones, K.P. (2017). To tell or not to tell? Examining the role of discrimination in the pregnancy disclosure process at work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22, 239-250.
  • King, E.B., Dawson, J.F., Jensen, J., & Jones, K.P. (2017). A socioecological approach to relational demography: How demographic representativeness and respectful coworkers affect job attitudes. Journal of Business and Psychology, 32, 1-19.
  • Jones, K.P., Arena, D.F., Nittrouer, C.L., Alonso, N.M., & Lindsey, A.P. (2017). Subtle discrimination in the workplace: A vicious cycle. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 10, 51-76.
  • King, E.B., Mohr, J., Peddie, C., Jones, K.P., & Kendra, M. (2017). Predictors of identity management: An exploratory experience-sampling study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual workers. Journal of Management, 43, 476-502.
  • Jones, K.P., King, E.B., Gilrane, V.L., McCausland, T.C., Cortina, J.M., & Grimm, K.J. (2016). The baby bump: Managing a dynamic stigma over time. Journal of Management, 42, 1530-1556.
  • Jones, K.P., Peddie, C.I., Gilrane, V.L., King, E.B., & Gray, A. (2016). Not so subtle: A meta-analytic investigation of the correlates of subtle and overt discrimination. Journal of Management, 42, 1588-1613.
  • Jones, K.P., & King, E.B. (2014). Managing concealable stigmas at work: A review and multilevel model. Journal of Management, 40, 1466-1494.
  • Jones, K.P., King, E.B., Nelson, J., Bowes-Sperry, L., & Geller, D.S. (2013). Beyond the business case: An ethical perspective of diversity training. Human Resource Management, 52, 55-74.
  • Lindsey, A., King, E.,B., McCausland, T.C., Jones, K.P., & Dunleavy, E. (2013). What we know and don't: Eradicating employment discrimination 50 years after the Civil Rights Act. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 6, 391-413.

Dr. Jessica Kirk studies HR/OB management topics such as sexual harassment in organizations, effects of attractiveness for women in organizations, bias and stereotyping in organizations, entrepreneurship, STEM, and the efficacy of anonymous selection practices. Examples of her research publications:

  • Keplinger, K., Johnson, S.K., Kirk, J.F., & Barnes, L.Y. (2019). Women at work: Changes in sexual harassment between September 2016 and September 2018. PLOS ONE 14: e0218313.
  • Johnson, S.K., Keplinger, K., Kirk, J.F., & Barnes, L.Y. (2019, July 18). Has sexual harassment at work decreased since #MeToo. Harvard Business Review.
  • Johnson, S.K., Keplinger, K., Kirk, J.F., & Chan, E.T. (2018). The perils of pretty: Effects of personal appearance on women's careers. In Research Handbook of Diversity and Careers. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.
  • Johnson, S.K., Kirk, J.F., & Keplinger, K. (2016, Oct 4). Why we fail to report sexual harassment. Harvard Business Review.
  • van den Bos, K., Cropanzano, R., Kirk, J.F., Jasso, G., & Okimoto, T.G. (2015). Expanding the horizons of social justice research: Three essays on justice theory. Social Justice Research, 28(2), 229-246.
  • Cropanzano, R., Fortin, M., & Kirk, J.F. (2015). How do we know when we are treated fairly? Justice rules and fairness judgments. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 33, 279-350.

Dr. Kurt Kraiger studies HR management topics such as employee training and development, mentoring, cognitive aging in the workplace, and technology-based instruction in organizations.  Examples of his research publications:

  • Cavanagh, T.M., Kraiger, K., & Henry, K. (in press). Age-related changes on the effects of job characteristics on job satisfaction: A longitudinal analysis. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development.
  • Kraiger, K., Cavanagh, T.M., & Willis, C.M.G. (in press). Why do cognitive prompts hurt learning in older adults? International Journal of Training & Development.
  • Kraiger, K., Finkelstein, L.M., & Varghese, L.S. (2019). Enacting effective mentoring behaviors: Development and initial investigation of the cuboid of mentoring. Journal of Business and Psychology, 34, 403–424.
  • Mattingly, V., & Kraiger, K. (2018). Can emotional intelligence be trained? A meta-analytical investigation. Human Resource Management Review, 29, 140-155.
  • Bell, B.S., Tannenbaum, S.I., Ford, J.K., Noe, R.A., & Kraiger, K. (2017). 100 years of training and development research: What we know and where we should go. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102, 305-323.
  • Cavanagh, T.M., Kraiger, K., & Peters, J. (2016). Cognitive prompts fail to moderate the impact of stereotype threat on older adults' training performance. Journal of Organizational Psychology, 16(2), 88-98.
  • Solove, E., Fisher, G.G., & Kraiger, K. (2015). Coping with job loss and reemployment: A two-wave study. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30, 529-541.
  • Wolfson, N. Cavanagh, T., & Kraiger, K. (2014). Older adults and technology-based instruction: Optimizing learning outcomes and transfer. Academy of Management: Learning and Education, 14, 26-44.
  • Sitzmann,  T.M., Bell, B., Kraiger, K., & Kanar, A.M. (2009). A multi-level analysis of the effect of prompting self-regulation in technology-delivered instruction. Personnel Psychology, 62, 697–734.
  • Sitzmann, T.M., Kraiger, K., Stewart, D., & Wisher, R.A. (2006). The effectiveness of web-based training: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 59, 623-664.
  • Smith-Jentsch, K.J., Mathieu, J.E., & Kraiger, K. (2005). Investigating linear and interactive effects of shared mental models on safety and efficiency in a field setting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 523-535.
  • Kraiger, K., McLinden, D., & Casper, W. (2004). Improving training and development through the application of theory and research. Human Resource Management, 43, 337-351.
  • Kraiger, K., Ford, J.K., & Salas, E. (1993). Integration of cognitive, behavioral, and affective theories of learning into new methods of training evaluation. Journal of Applied Psychology [Monograph], 78, 311-328.
  • Kraiger, K., Billings, R.S., & Isen, A.M. (1989). The influence of positive affective states on task perceptions and satisfaction. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 43, 271-276.
  • Ford, J.K., Kraiger, K., & Schectman, S.L. (1986). Study of race effects in objective indices and subjective evaluations of performance: A meta-analysis of performance criteria. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 330-337.
  • Kraiger, K., & Ford, J.K. (1985). A meta-analysis of ratee race effects in performance ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 56-65.

Dr. Alex Lindsey studies HR management topics such as managing workplace diversity and inclusion, subtle and overt discrimination, ethnic identity, LGB identity, disabilities, well being, and diversity training in organizations. Examples of his research publications:

  • Lindsey, A., King, E., Gilmer, L., Sabat, I., & Ahmad, A. (in press). The benefits of identity integration across life domains. Journal of Homosexuality.
  • Sabat, I.E., Lindsey, A.P., Winslow, C., King, E.B., Membere, A., Jones, K.P., & Smith, N. (in press). Stigma expression outcomes and boundary conditions: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology.
  • Jones, K.P., Arena Jr., D.F., Lindsey, A.P., Nittrouer, C., & Alonso, N. (2017). Subtle discrimination in the workplace: A vicious cycle. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 10, 51-76.
  • Kuykendall, L., Lei, X., Tay, L., Cheung, H.K., Kolze, M., Lindsey, A., Silvers, M., & Engelsted, L. (2017). Subjective quality of leisure and worker well-being: Validating measures and testing theory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 103, 14-40.
  • Lindsey, A., Avery, D., Dawson, J., & King, E. (2017). Mirrors or misalignments: Management ethnic representativeness and perceived mistreatment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102, 1545-1563.
  • Lindsey, A., King, E., Membere, A., & Cheung, H.K. (2017) Two types of diversity training that really work. Harvard Business Review. July 28th, 2017. https://hbr.org/2017/07/two-types-of-diversity-training-that-really-work
  • Sabat, I.E., Lindsey, A.P., King, E.B., Ahmad, A.S., Membere, A., & Arena Jr., D.F. (2017). How prior knowledge of LGB identities alters the effects of workplace disclosure. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 103, 56-70.
  • Winslow, C., Kaplan, S., Bradley-Geist, J., Lindsey, A., Ahmad, A., & Hargrove, A. K. (2017). An examination of two positive organizational interventions: For whom do these interventions work? Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22, 129-138.
  • Anderson, A.J., Ahmad, A.S., King, E.B, Lindsey, A., Feyre, R., Ragone, S., & Kim, S. (2015). The effectiveness of three training strategies to reduce the influence of bias in evaluations of female leaders. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 45, 522-529.
  • Lindsey, A., King, E., Cheung, H., Hebl, M., Lynch, S., & Mancini, V. (2015). When do women respond against discrimination? Exploring factors of subtlety, form, and focus. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 45, 649-661.
  • Lindsey, A., King, E., Hebl, M., & Levine, N. (2015). The impact of method, motivation, and empathy on diversity training effectiveness. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30, 605-617.
  • Kaplan, S., Bradley-Geist, J. C., Ahmad, A., Anderson, A., Hargrove, A. K., & Lindsey, A. (2014). A test of two positive psychology interventions to increase employee well-being. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29, 367-380.
  • Sabat, I.E., Lindsey, A., Membere, A., Anderson, A., Ahmad, A., King, E., & Bolunmez, B. (2014). Invisible disabilities: Unique strategies for workplace allies. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives of Science and Practice, 7, 259-265.
  • Lindsey, A., King, E.B., McCausland, T.C., Jones, K.P., & Dunleavy, E. (2013). What we know and don't: Eradicating employment discrimination 50 years after the Civil Rights Act. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 6, 391-413.

Dr. Chuck Pierce studies HR management topics such as workplace romance, sexual harassment in organizations, and test bias and discrimination in human capital selection.  He also studies organizational research methods topics such as meta-analysis and moderator variables.  Examples of his research publications:

  • Knapp, D.E., Hogue, M., & Pierce, C.A. (2019). A gateway theory-based model of the escalation of severity of sexually harassing behavior in organizations. Journal of Managerial Issues, 31, 198-215. 
  • Aguinis, H., Culpepper, S.A., & Pierce, C.A. (2016). Differential prediction generalization in college admissions testing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108, 1045-1059.
  • Bosco, F.A., Aguinis, H., Field, J.G., Pierce, C.A., & Dalton, D.R. (2016). HARKing's threat to organizational research: Evidence from primary and meta-analytic sources. Personnel Psychology, 69, 709-750.
  • Bosco, F.A., Aguinis, H., Singh, K., Field, J.G., & Pierce, C.A. (2015). Correlational effect size benchmarks. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100, 431-449.
  • Hancock, J.I., Allen, D.G., Bosco, F.A., McDaniel, K.R., & Pierce, C.A. (2013). Meta-analytic review of employee turnover as a predictor of firm performance. Journal of Management, 39, 573-603.
  • Dalton, D.R., Aguinis, H., Dalton, C.M., Bosco, F.A., & Pierce, C.A. (2012). Revisiting the file drawer problem in meta-analysis: An assessment of published and non-published correlation matrices. Personnel Psychology, 65, 221-249.
  • Aguinis, H., Dalton, D.R., Bosco, F.A., Pierce, C.A., & Dalton, C.M. (2011). Meta-analytic choices and judgment calls: Implications for theory development and testing, obtained effect sizes, and scholarly impact. Journal of Management, 37, 5-38.
  • Aguinis, H., Culpepper, S.A., & Pierce, C.A. (2010). Revival of test bias research in preemployment testing. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 648-680.
  • Pierce, C.A., & Aguinis, H. (2009). Moving beyond a legal-centric approach to managing workplace romances: Organizationally sensible recommendations for HR leaders. Human Resource Management, 48, 447-464.
  • Aguinis, H., Sturman, M.C., & Pierce, C.A. (2008). Comparison of three meta-analytic procedures for estimating moderating effects of categorical variables. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 9-34.
  • Aguinis, H., Beaty, J.C., Boik, R.J., & Pierce, C.A. (2005). Effect size and power in assessing moderating effects of categorical variables using multiple regression: A 30-year review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 94-107.
  • Pierce, C.A., Broberg, B.J., McClure, J.R., & Aguinis, H. (2004). Responding to sexual harassment complaints: Effects of a dissolved workplace romance on decision-making standards. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 95, 66-82.
  • Pierce, C.A., Aguinis, H., & Adams, S.K.R. (2000). Effects of a dissolved workplace romance and rater characteristics on responses to a sexual harassment accusation. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 869-880.
  • Aguinis, H., & Pierce, C.A. (1998). Testing moderator variable hypotheses meta-analytically. Journal of Management, 24, 577-592.
  • Pierce, C.A., Byrne, D., & Aguinis, H. (1996). Attraction in organizations: A model of workplace romance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 5-32.

Dr. Caitlin Porter studies HR management topics such as employee turnover and withdrawal, professional networking, and social networks. Her research investigates how personal characteristics (e.g., personality) and work relationships (e.g., workplace and professional networks, mentors) influence employees' career management activities (e.g., job search, development) and success. Examples of her research publications:

  • Porter, C.M., & Rigby, J.R. (in press). Relationship context and personality shape people's preferences for network relationship partners. Personal Relationships.
  • Porter, C.M., Keith, M.G., & Woo, S.E. (in press). A meta-analysis of network positions and creative performance: Differentiating creativity conceptualizations and measurement approaches. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts.
  • Porter, C.M., Posthuma, R., Maertz, C.P., Jr., Joplin, J., Rigby, J.R., Gordon, M., & Graves, K. (2019). On-the-job and off-the-job embeddedness differentially influence relationships between informal job Search and turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 104, 678-689.
  • Saef, R.M., Porter, C.M., & Woo, S.E. (2019). Getting off on the right foot: The role of openness to experience in fostering initial trust between culturally dissimilar partners. Journal of Research in Personality, 79, 176-187.
  • Porter, C.M., Woo, S.E., Allen, D.G., & Keith, M.G. (2019). How do instrumental and expressive network positions relate to turnover?: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 104, 511-536.
  • Porter, C.M. (2018). Long live social exchange theory. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Research and Practice, 11, 498-504.
  • Porter, C.M., Parrigon, S., Woo, S.E., Saef, R., & Tay, L. (2017). Cultural and intellectual openness differentially relate to social judgments of potential work partners. Journal of Personality, 85, 632-642.
  • Porter, C.M., Woo, S.E., & Campion, M.A. (2016). Internal and external networking differentially predict turnover through job embeddedness and job offers. Personnel Psychology, 69, 635-672.
  • Porter, C.M., Woo, S. E., & Tak, J. (2016). Developing and validating short-form protean and boundaryless career attitude scales. Journal of Career Assessment, 24, 162-181.
  • Porter, C.M., & Woo, S.E. (2015). Untangling the networking phenomenon: A dynamic psychological perspective on how and why people network. Journal of Management, 41, 1477-1500.
  • Zhu, X., Woo, S.E., Porter, C.M., & Brzezinski, M. (2013). Pathways to happiness: From personality to social networks and perceived support. Social Networks, 35, 382-393.

Dr. Enrica Ruggs studies HR/OB management topics such as managing diverse workplaces, subtle and overt discrimination, outcomes of stigmatization, identity management for employees with stigmatized identities, social factors influencing mistreatment and affect at work, and strategies to reduce discrimination and increase inclusion. Examples of her research publications:

  • Ruggs, E.N., Walker, S.S., & Corrington, A., Nittrouer, C. (2019). Say it loud, I'm black and proud: The effectiveness of racial acknowledgments at work. Personnel Assessment and Decisions, 2, 1-11.
  • *Walker, S.S., Ruggs, E.N., Morgan, W.B., & DeGrassi, S.W. (2019). Diverse perspectives on diversity: Exploring interpersonal interactions and attitudes in heterogeneous groups. Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion: An International Journal, 38, 2-19.
  • Ruggs, E.N., Ames Stuart, J., & Yang, L.W. (2018). The effect of traditionally marginalized groups in advertising on consumer response. Marketing Letters, 29, 319-335.
  • Lyons, B.J., Martinez, L.R., Ruggs, E.N., Hebl, M.R., Ryan, A.M., O'Brien, K.R., & Roebuck, A. (2018). To say or not to say: Different strategies of acknowledging a visible disability. Journal of Management, 44, 1980-2007.
  • Martinez, L.R., Sawyer, K., Thoroughgood, C., Ruggs, E.N., & Smith, N.A. (2017). The importance of being "me": The relation between authentic identity expression and transgender employees' work-related attitudes and experiences. Journal of Applied Psychology 102, 215-226.
  • Ruggs, E.N., Hebl, M.R., Caridad Rabelo, V., Weaver, K.B., Kovacs, J., & Kemp, A.S. (2016). Baltimore is burning: Can I-O psychologists help extinguish the flames? Industrial and Organizational Psychology Perspectives on Science and Practice (Focal Article), 9, 1-23.
  • Ruggs, E.N., Martinez, L.R., Hebl, M.R., & Law, C. (2015). Workplace trans-actions: How organizations, coworkers, and individual openness can reduce gender identity discrimination. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2, 404-412.
  • Ruggs, E.N., Hebl, M.R., & Williams, A. (2015). Weight isn't selling: The insidious effects of weight stigmatization in retail settings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100, 1483-1496.
  • Ruggs, E.N., Hebl, M.R., Walker, S.S., & Fa-Kaji, N. (2014). When age meets gender: The impact for job applicants. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 29, 1028-1043.
  • Martinez, L.R., Ruggs, E.N., Sabat, I.E., Hebl, M.R., & Binggeli, S. (2013). The role of organizational leaders in sexual orientation equality at organizational and federal levels. Journal of Business and Psychology, 28, 455-466.
  • Ruggs, E.N., Law, C., Cox, C.B., Roehling, M.V., Wiener, R.L., Hebl, M.R., & Barron, L. (2013). Gone fishing: I/O Psychologists' missed opportunities to understand marginalized employees' experiences with discrimination. Industrial and Organizational Psychology Perspectives on Science and Practice (Focal Article), 6, 39-60.

Strategic Management

Dr. Frances Fabian studies strategic management, online communities, and entrepreneurship.  Examples of her research publications:

  • Clampit, J., Kedia, B., Fabian, F., & Gaffney, N. (2015). Offshoring satisfaction: The role of partnership credibility and cultural complementarity. Journal of World Business, 50, 79-93.
  • Aissaoui, R., & Fabian, F.F. (2015). The French paradox: Implications for variations in global convergence. Journal of International Management, 21, 31-48.
  • Wakolbinger, T., Fabian, F., & Kettinger, W.J. (2013). IT-enabled interorganizational information sharing under co-opetition in disasters: A game-theoretic framework. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 33, 5-14.
  • Miller, K.D., Fabian, F., & Lin, S. (2009). Strategies for online communities. Strategic Management Journal, 30, 305-322.
  • Fabian, F., Molina, H., & Labianca, G. (2009). Understanding decisions to internationalize by small and medium-sized firms located in an emerging market. Management International Review, 49, 537-563.
  • Fabian, F. (2000). Keeping the tension: Pressures to keep the controversy in the management discipline. Academy of Management Review, 25, 350-371.

Dr. Robert Wiggins studies strategic management topics such as sustained competitive advantage, hypercompetition, and information systems.  Examples of his research publications:

  • Wiggins, R.R., & Ruefli, T.W. (2005). Schumpeter's ghost: Is hypercompetition making the best of times shorter? Strategic Management Journal, 26, 887-911.
  • Ruefli, T.W., & Wiggins, R.R. (2003). Industry, corporate, and segment effects and business performance: A non-parametric approach. Strategic Management Journal, 24, 861-879.
  • Wiggins, R.R., & Ruefli, T.W. (2002). Sustained competitive advantage: Temporal dynamics and the incidence and persistence of superior economic performance. Organization Science, 13, 82-105.
  • Wiggins, R.R., & Ruefli, T.W. (1995). Necessary conditions for the predictive validity of strategic groups: Analysis without reliance on clustering techniques. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 1635-1656.

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